Knowledge Base

A better therapeutic effect with spheroids

In many cases the main reason for the use of pellets in the manufacture of products is for its controlled release properties. However there are reasons to believe that pellets or spheroids in any case can offer a superior therapeutic effect even when modified release is not the prime objective.

Examples of the terminology used in spheronization and marumerization

Spheronization, marumerization, pelletization and micropelletization all mean the same thing. The manufacture of products in small spheres (spheroids) for use in pharmaceutical (pharma) and catalyst industries. Within each batch the spheroids are of regular shape and size and are quite dense. The products produced by these processes can be called spheroids, spheres, micro-spheres, pellets,...

Mix sticky, viscous and difficult granulations

High Viscosity Blade & Bowl set from the Caleva Multi Lab.  Mix and blend small quantities of difficult materials using the special high viscosity bowl and blade attachment set built for the Caleva Multi Lab.Our high viscosity mixing bowl and blade set is designed for mixing and blending of small quantities (10 to 50 g) of those more difficult and more viscous mixtures when the high shear...

Do I need a water jacket for cooling on a screw extruder?

The extruder attachment on the Caleva CML does not have a water jacket. Does it need one?

All extruders generate heat and screw extruders generate more than most other extruder types. For this reason, water jackets are generally an integral part of single or twin-screw extruders. 

  • Given the small batch sizes (10 to 100 g) that are optimum for the CML extruder, a well formulated extrudate will...

Trilobe and quadrilobe extruder dies with catalyst adsorption

Can trilobe and quadrilobe extruder dies provide benefits when working with catalysts or products for gas adsorption?

Can the results from very small batches be repeated during scale up?

This range of Variable Density extruders is designed to allow scale up starting from the initial development with the product saving, time saving and flexible Caleva Multi Lab (CML). Moving forward to the manufacture of larger trial batches (kilos rather than grams) the bench top VDE™ would be the preferred equipment.

Increase the Surface Area to Volume ratio in the extruded material

Can the equipment design help to increase the Surface Area to Volume ratio (SA/V) in the extruded material (extrudate)?

          Caleva offers a range of dies that have the standard round holes with different diameters. With the CML extruder, die-hole diameters can range from 0.5 mm to 3.0 mm. Die holes larger that this will require a larger bench top system such as the Caleva bench top Variable...

Modify the density, pore size and porosity of the extruded material

The Caleva CML extruder attachment is the smallest in the family of screw driven extruders that can offer the operator the ability to extrude the material at high, medium high, medium low, or low density. By management of the extrudate density physical properties of the extruded material can be influenced. The most important of these are likely to be:

Can I modify the density of extrudate produced during extrusion?

During the formulation development process, challenges related to final product performance have to be examined, exposed and overcome.

This is not always easy or straight-forward. However, if you have more options that you can investigate then there is likely to be an increased probability of a successful result.   Different factors are considered as part of any formulation development and...

How to clean the spray head on your Mini Coater Drier

If you need help in understanding how best to clean the nozzle and spray head to maintain and care for your Mini Coater Drier Tablet & Pellet Coater then this video will show you how.  Full instructions are contained in your operating manual.  If you require advice or assistance then please contact Caleva and we will be very happy to help.

Extruding with the E35

The Caleva Extruder 35 is capable of processing batch sizes from 250g to 5kg (wet weight) of product to create an hourly output of approximately 100kg (product dependent).

The E35 works with a large range of materials, including pharmaceutical materials, catalysts and agricultural products.


The Extruder

The screen used for extrusion can be configured to your needs, with different diameter...

Spheronizing with the S380

The Caleva Spheronizer 380 is capable of processing batch sizes from 250g to 5kg (wet weight) of product to create an hourly output of approximately 50kg.

The S380 works with a large range of materials, including pharmaceutical materials, catalysts and agricultural products.

The Spheronizer

The spheronizer disc used in this example is the Caleva 3mm x 3mm cross hatch pattern which comes as...

Mixing trials with a Caleva Mixer Granulator and difficult materials

Two different products were tested to help a customer who was finding some difficulty in obtaining homogeneous mixes of small volumes. These materials were considered difficult to mix to a homogeneous state in the batch sizes required.


A mix of sugar and salt in the ratio of 2:1
A batch of 100 grams of household sugar was weighed and added to the mixing bowl, together with a...

How do I decide which laboratory extruder and spheronizer I need?

We are often asked for advice by researchers and teachers who want to acquire laboratory equipment for the development of both formulations and processes using the techniques of Extrusion and Spheronization in the laboratory.  All users are individual and have different requirements and there is not a single system that will fit all needs.

Find out what you need to consider.


How to produce consistent formulations from different mixers

Customer Quote: Mr. K.S (Aurobindo)

"It is exciting to see the correlation between the two graphs and granulation end point". 

With a major pharmaceutical manufacturer, together we characterised all their various mixers to produce a consistent formulation.

To identify three important characteristics for wet mass materials, namely:

  • The Optimum moisture point
  • The mixing time required to reach...

Mixing and granulating small batches

The Caleva Multi-Lab (CML) is capable of performing 3 different processes: Mixing, Extrusion and Spheronization.

This article is about the mixing and granulation phase of the process.

The multi-lab works with a large range of materials from pharmaceutical materials and catalysts, to agricultural products.

The granulator/mixer

The mixer attachment blades thoroughly mix the liquid binder with the...

Mix, Extrude & Spheronize in a single base - watch a video

Call Caleva's friendly team to talk about this unique solution for your applications, whatever your challenges are.


The Caleva Multi-Lab (CML) is often considered to be the flagship of Caleva lab equipment.

Being able to perform 3 different processes rapidly in one machine with a footprint just slightly larger than an A3 piece of paper, makes the CML a welcome addition to any lab space that...

How do I coat tablets or pellets with the Caleva Mini Coater Drier

The Mini Coater Drier (MCD) is an incredibly useful piece of equipment when it comes to coating and drying small batches of tablets or pellets. For a demonstration of the MCD in use, you can watch the video on this page, or for some quick pieces of information on the MCD, check the bullet points below.

  • From a single tablet up to about 150 tablets
  • From a few grams to about 60 grams of small...

The very small footprint Caleva Multi Lab

The small size of the CML is just one of the many advantages that this piece of equipment can offer. Having the ability to complete 3 processes in one machine, whilst also taking up a minimal amount of bench top space, makes the CML a great addition to any lab space that works with the processes of mixing/granulation, extrusion and spheronization.


Do excipients purchased from different vendors behave in the same way?

The Mixer Torque Rheometer can be used to assess the behaviour of excipients purchased from different suppliers.


Excipients from different batches or vendors may be variable in quality and it is often necessary to perform pre-formulation assessment for each batch of excipient received.  In some cases, excipients from different vendors require comparative assessment of their...